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Calendering electro-optical graining machine

Calendering machine 1. Equipment structure and working process The three types of equipment, namely the rolling machine, electric finishing machine and embossing machine, are all u…

Calendering machine

1. Equipment structure and working process
The three types of equipment, namely the rolling machine, electric finishing machine and embossing machine, are all used to improve the appearance of fabrics. The first two are mainly to improve the finish of the fabric, while the embossing machine makes the fabric have an uneven station pattern or produces a partial finish effect.
They are composed of a frame, a roll, a pressurizing device, a transmission device, a heating system and a cloth in and out device. The rolls are divided into two categories: soft rolls and hard rolls. Soft rollers are generally made of cotton, linen, wool and other fiber papers, polyamide or fabrics. They are called fiber rollers. The structure is shown in Figure 9-9. It is characterized by good elasticity, heat resistance, durability and the ability to withstand greater pressure. The hard roll is a metal roll and is a driving roll. It is mainly made of cast iron, quenched iron, steel and other metals. The quenched iron roll has a high surface hardness and is easy to maintain flatness and smoothness. It is often used as a finishing roll. The heating rollers are all metal rollers and come in the form of electric heating, steam heating, and hot oil heating. The pressurization methods are mostly hammer lever pressurization and oil pressure pressurization.

 11 Rolling finishing machine
Different rolling finishing effects can be obtained depending on the roll surface material, rolling pressure, temperature, different soft and hard roll combinations and cloth threading methods. The equipment used for rolling can be summarized as general rolling mill, friction rolling mill and laminated rolling mill.
(1) General rolling mill: A general rolling mill generally consists of three rollers. The rollers are arranged in two types: “soft-hard-soft” or “hard-soft-hard”. This equipment uses steam heating, and the temperature of the heating roller is 80 to 110°C.
The general rolling machine is suitable for general finishing of fabrics after rolling. It is used for flat rolling of various types of bleached, colored and patterned plain fabrics. Under conditions of increased pressure, it can also be used as a re-rolling of hard pulp thin fabrics. Equipment for finishing after finishing. Figure 9-10 is a schematic diagram of a general three-roll rolling mill.

(2) Friction rolling mill: The friction rolling mill is also composed of three rollers, generally arranged in a “hard-soft-hard” arrangement.

The lower roller is made of cast iron, and the middle roller is made of paper meal or cotton. The small roller above is made of quenched iron and is also called a friction roller. There is a small wax roller above and in front of the friction roller, which is freely adjustable and can be in contact with or separated from the friction roller. When the machine is running, the wax roller is wrapped with a layer of felt and coated with some grease to lubricate the friction roller and wipe away fiber dust and accumulated starch and other dirt adhering to the roller. The fiber roller and the friction roller form a friction rolling point, and the cast iron roller forms a hard rolling point. As shown in Figure 9-11.
When finishing after rolling, the fabric first passes through the hard rolling point and then the friction rolling point. The linear speed of the friction roller is greater than the speed of the fabric passing through the nip point, causing the surface of the fabric to be rubbed to achieve the polishing effect. At the same time, due to rolling and friction, the spinning yarn is flattened, the cross hole pressure is not reduced, and the fabric surface is completely smooth, producing a strong luster.
During finishing, according to the finishing requirements of the fabric, the friction rate (i.e. the linear speed ratio of the upper and lower rollers) can be adjusted through the transmission device in the range of 30% to 300%. The specific levels are 30% and 50%. , 75%, 100%, 150%, 200%, 300%, among which the more common ones are 50% to 75%. The temperature of the friction roller is 100~120℃, and the moisture content of the fabric is 10%~15%.
The friction rolling finishing machine is suitable for finishing the rolling of twill lining fabric, medium yarn count plain weave fabric and tracing cloth. The surface of the fabric after finishing has a strong finish and is very bright, as if coated with a layer of wax.
(3) Universal rolling mill: A rolling mill with more than five rollers is called a universal rolling mill. Because the rollers are arranged in different ways and have different uses, the finishing effects are also different. The main situations are as follows:
① If the soft and hard rollers are arranged alternately, they are used for single-side rolling of the fabric.
② If there are two soft rollers arranged adjacently in the middle, it is used for double-sided rolling.
③ If only the lower three rollers are used, it can be used as a friction rolling mill.
④ If it is equipped with a set of 6 to 10 sets of guide rollers, it is used for laminating and rolling.
The so-called lamination rolling is to roll the fabric lamination through the same rolling point, and the lamination can be up to 6 layers. The characteristic of laminated rolling is that the mutual rolling effect between fabrics is used to produce a ripple effect on the cloth surface. In addition to giving the fabric a soft finish, it can also give the fabric a soft feel and a clear-textured appearance. The effect is natural.
When the fabric is laminated and rolled, first wind it around the rolling machine roller once, pass through the cloth guide roller, and then repeatedly wind it around each rolling roller. Repeat this for 5 to 6 times, depending on the number of layers. The more, the softer the finished fabric will feel. The way to thread the cloth is shown in Figure 9-12. This method is mainly used for the finishing of poplin-type bleached and mixed-color fabrics.

 21 Electric complete machine
The structure of the electric complete machine is shown in Figure 9-13. The electric finishing machine is generally a two-roller type, with a soft bottom and a hard top. The soft roller is a wool paper roller. Hard rolls are often called electric finish rolls, and are mostly chromium-plated steel rolls with dense parallel thin diagonal lines engraved on their surfaces. The density, tilt direction and angle of the oblique lines should match the structure of the fabric and the twist direction of the spinning yarn. The density of oblique threads is generally 50 to 200 threads/cm. The thicker the yarn, the smaller the density. The inclination direction should be consistent with the twist direction of the spinning threads on the fabric surface, and the inclination angle should be based on the twist direction of the main spinning threads on the fabric surface. Lord. If the warp yarns of straight satin float on the cloth surface, the twist direction of the warp yarns should be the main one, and the inclination angle (slope) of the engraved diagonal lines should be 70°. The weft yarns of horizontal satin floats on the cloth surface, and the twist direction of the weft yarns should be the main one. Generally, Take 20°, the warp and �The float length of the yarn is similar and can be 20° or 70°. However, the strength of the warp yarn is generally greater than that of the weft yarn, and the twist direction of the weft yarn should be the main one. The electric finishing roller adopts electric heating inside the roller, and the heating temperature is usually 160~180℃.
The pressurization method is pressurization under the oil cylinder. The surface of the electro-finished fabric is pressed into fine, mutually parallel diagonal lines by a heated steel roller with a suitable diagonal roller surface, so that the finished lines are regularly reflected, achieving a strong finish and a silky feel. .
 31 Corrugating machine
The corrugating machine has a two-roller structure, and its appearance is similar to that of an electric finishing machine. The difference is that the rollers are engraved with patterns. According to whether the soft roller is engraved with patterns, it can be divided into gin machine and copying machine.
The hard roller of the gin is a steel roller, with a high convex sun pattern engraved on the surface (height 0.9~1.4mm). The surface of the soft roll is rolled with negative grooves (0.4~0.7mm) that match the ridges of the hard roll but are slightly shallower in depth. The diameter of the steel roll is smaller and maintains an integer ratio with the soft roll, usually 1:2 or 1:3. The steel roller has a built-in electric heating device, and the temperature can reach 150~200℃. Obvious concave and convex patterns can be obtained after the fabric is embossed. If combined with resin finishing, a durable embossed pattern can be obtained. The machine consists of a light corrugating machine and a hanging baking machine. The light corrugation machine is composed of a corrugation roller and a butadiene rubber roller, of which the cyanide butadiene rubber roller is the main roller. The corrugated roller is pressurized by screws and levers. Since the pattern depth is only 0.4~0.6mm and the pressure is small, the requirements for soft rollers are not high. The heating temperature of the corrugated roller can reach 150~200℃. After printing and rolling onto the cellulose fiber fabric that has been treated with the initial shrinkage of thermosetting synthetic resin, that is, after being baked in the baking machine, a durable concave and convex pattern can be formed.
The convex height of the pattern engraved on the surface of the heated steel roller of the copy machine is low, and the surface of the soft roller has no pattern. The fabric only relies on the embossment of the steel roller to produce the pattern effect, and the pattern obtained is not obvious. In order to prevent the ridges on the steel roller from causing dents on the soft roller, it is required to use a highly elastic soft roller and a lighter rolling force. The hard roller should be smaller than the soft roller. The circumferences of the soft roller and the hard roller cannot be in an integer ratio.
41 Multifunctional Finishing Machine
A finishing machine with more than five rollers can obtain a variety of finishing effects depending on the combination of cloth threading and soft and hard rolling points, but it still has great limitations. In order to meet people’s requirements for one machine with multiple functions, a variety of new multi-functional rolling mills have been developed in recent years, such as the standing two-roller electric finishing proportional rolling mill from Farmer Norton in the UK, and the Kuster (Germany) Küsters’ electro-finished and friction-finished embossing machines, German Ramisch’s friction embossing machines, etc. Below, we introduce two typical multi-functional three-roll finishing machines according to the roll arrangement.
(1) Multifunctional stationary three-roll rolling mill: as shown in Figure 9-14. The machine adopts the pressurization method under the oil cylinder. The fiber roller on the upper side can be replaced as needed. The lower side is a heated steel roller that can be heated by steam, gas and electricity. The maximum temperature on the surface of the hot roller can reach 250°C. Different rolling methods can be used to obtain different finishing effects. For example, the fabric can obtain the soft rolling effect by passing through the nipping point between the fiber roller and the nylon hydraulic uniform roller, and the fabric can obtain the flat rolling effect by passing the heated steel roller and the nylon roller at the nipping point.
If the fiber roller above is replaced by an electric finishing roller, post-finishing finishing can be carried out. If it is replaced with a corrugated steel roller, post-corrugation finishing can be carried out.
(2) Multifunctional L-shaped three-roll rolling mill: as shown in Figure 9-15. Heated steel rollers, polyamide uniform rollers and elastic rollers are arranged in an L shape to form a multifunctional L-shaped three-roller. The polyamide uniform roller is a hydraulic piston type controllable medium and high roller. It is distributed in two static pressure piston cylinders in two planes at 90° to each other. It can compensate for the natural deflection of the two rollers that are pressed against each other to make the polyamide uniform. The rollers, heated steel rollers and elastic rollers can maintain uniform axial pressure to ensure uniform rolling effect in the width direction of the fabric. The polyamide roller has good compression resilience, and the fabric seam will not damage the roller when it passes through. However, its heat resistance is poor. Cooling it with cold water or cold air can extend its service life.
When the fabric is rolled, different finishing effects can be obtained by adopting different threading methods. For example, when the fabric passes through the nipping point of the polyamide roller and the heated steel roller, it can obtain high gloss; when it passes through the nipping point of the fiber roller and the polyamide roller, it will obtain the effect of post-disposal finishing, and the fabric will feel soft and full; when the fabric passes through the two nip points, Point and apply different pressures to achieve the desired finish while also achieving a soft and full feel.

In order to ensure the safe operation of the rolling mill, each rolling mill is equipped with metal detection, seam detection, emergency stop, bamboo clamp removal device and static electricity remover to protect fiber rolls, nylon rolls, polyester rolls, etc. The amide rollers are not damaged.



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Author: clsrich